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(optional) Rape

In 2006, J reportedly raped his neighbour, R.P.B, when she was 17 years old. R.P.B. reported the rape to police and underwent a medical exam. Because R.P.B. is mute and has a hearing impairment, her sister interpreted for her in sign language during the police investigation. State authorities did not provide any interpretation for R.P.B.

(optional) rape

The minority explained that although the State Party did not dispute that M.E.N. had been gang raped at knifepoint, it did dispute that the rape constituted a ground for persecution under CEDAW or the Refugee Convention. The minority responded:

Ben Warwick analyses the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (Committee) in Karen Tayag Vertido v The Philippines and its implications for rape law.

Despite the lack of specific provision on rape and sexual violence in CEDAW, the Committee has no difficulty in finding that poor treatment of rape complainants is a breach of CEDAW under articles article 2(c) and 2(f), and article 5(a) read in conjunction with article 1. Namely the obligations to establish legal protection of women on an equal basis with men, to take all appropriate measures to modify and abolish existing laws which constitute discrimination against women, to modify social and cultural practices predicated on stereotypes or the inferiority/superiority of the sexes, and the duty of non- discrimination.

The Vertido decision must at the very least prompt a reconsideration of the appropriateness and effectiveness of national rape laws. States that are struggling to adequately address the scourge of rape and sexual violence might benefit from a fresh look at the alternative approaches that the Committee offers. It is clear from the summary above that there are merits to both approaches and this affords states a range of options and some discretion.

It would be surprising if the issues addressed in Vertido were not taken forward in future communications. In that regard, there is cause to look forward to more detailed and nuanced examination of rape law by the Committee precipitated by the Optional Protocol.

Is rape unique in terms of the factors which transform an attempt into a completion? Or is rape similar to other forms of assaultive violence? These questions are addressed here by employing the National Crime Survey to develop models of attempted versus completed rape, assault on females, and assault on males. Logistic equations predicting each type of victimization are estimated and compared. The analysis shows that rape victimization is unique. Additionally, the differences between attempted versus completed rape and assault cannot be accounted for by the sex of the victim or the sex of the assailant. The implications of these findings for theories of rape and assault are discussed. The policy implications of these findings are briefly considered.

My goals are to hold up the content of some canonical texts to a political scrutiny and to suggest a theoretical model that enables escape from the trap of representation in the hierarchy.Axioms: Content is never arbitrary or trivial; content is not an accident of a text but an essential. A text about rape may also be about something else, but it is still a text of rape. A seductive treatment is standard equipment for any fantasy; stylistic analysis does not replace content analysis and, in fact, leaves us to explain what that style is doing on that content, like a bow on a slaughterhouse.

Other women in the Metamorphoses pursue men out of excessive desire (the maenads, Byblis, Myrrha, Circe), never with good results. But here the poet experiments with a female who has all the trappings of the most forceful rapist, and the interchange of roles here results in a permanent and threatening confusion of gender. We will see male rapists who dress as women, even a male raped because he is dressed as a woman, and these events turn out well; when a female acts male, the result is the unmanning of all men, and the narrative makes it clear that this is a bad thing (e.g., 4.285-86). A character in Book 12 shows what is at stake: Caenis, raped by Neptune and given a wish in return, replies (12.201-3):

Gossip records that dancers were lusted after by the rich and famous (so of Bathyllus and Maecenas; Tac. Ann. 1.54.3). Satire avers that women found the dance of rape sexually exciting (Juv. 6.63-66):

The pleasure of the style and the pleasure in the content are congruent. Moreover, the universe described horrifies and allures us precisely because it is out of kilter, as is the style with the content. Perhaps this is why rape is such a suitable scenario for the Metamorphoses, which comes to involve dissolution of the boundaries of body, genus, gender, and genre. (And not rape alone; the poem is full of incest, the mating of human with statue, cross-sex transformations.) Such a phenomenon has been taken into account for Greek literature (Bergren 1983; Zeitlin 1985a) but not for Latin. But perhaps Roman culture, so obsessed with boundaries, [176] is precisely the place for it. Rape as a passport to death, or to dissolution of the body, may have made sense to Ovid and his audience.

Two brothers kill the entire city and then retrieve their sister. The other brothers follow up with pillage and slavery. Ironically, their actions are worse than the initiate action of Shechem, even if Shechem did rape Dinah:

ELKTON, Md. (AP) - Starting next year across the country, rapevictims too afraid or too ashamed to go to police can undergo anemergency-room forensic rape exam, and the evidence gathered willbe kept on file in a sealed envelope in case they decide to presscharges.

The new federal requirement that states pay for \"Jane Doe rapekits\" is aimed at removing one of the biggest obstacles toprosecuting rape cases: Some women are so traumatized they don'tcome forward until it is too late to collect hair, semen or othersamples.

The practice is already followed at some health clinics,colleges and hospitals around the country and by the state ofMassachusetts. But many other jurisdictions refuse to cover theestimated $800 cost of a forensic rape exam unless the victim filesa police report.

Beginning in 2009, states will have to pay for Jane Doe rapekits to continue receiving funding under the federal ViolenceAgainst Women Act, which provides tax dollars for women's sheltersand law enforcement training. States will decide how many locationswill offer anonymous rape exams and how long the evidence should bekept.

Emergency rooms typically use a \"rape kit\" to collect evidencefor use by police and prosecutors. It consists of microscopeslides, boxes and plastic bags for storing skin, hair, blood,saliva or semen gathered by a specially trained nurse. The victim'sinjuries are also photographed.

What makes a Jane Doe rape kit different is that it is sealedwith only a number on the outside of the envelope to identify thevictim. Police do not open the envelope unless the victim decidesto press charges.

In Cecil County, local authorities started offering Jane Doekits four years ago, after a rape victim recanted. Anne Bean,clinical director for a rape and sexual assault counseling programin Cecil County, said giving women the option of keeping police outof it until they are ready to press charges is crucial.

\"Just to let people know this option is out there is good, tosay, 'It's OK, you don't have to prosecute if you don't want to,\"'said Kathleen, a rape victim in Pennsylvania who spoke on conditionher full name not be used.

Kathleen underwent an exam after being raped in Virginia in2004, but her rapist was never found or charged. Kathleen said shewasn't offered anonymous reporting, but she has met rape victims ingroup therapy who regret not going for an exam. 041b061a72


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